Wellness Solutions Presents the First Two Chapters Free
Chapter 1: Introduction
People have always believed—or continue to believe—that serotonin is the happy hormone and that elevating it has antidepressant effects.
Imagine if I told you that wasn’t at all true. For depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses, SSRI medications are most frequently prescribed; over 90% of patients receiving antidepressant medication take one of these medications. Physicians prescribe it without hesitation, and the majority of them are unaware of the serious side effects or don’t even inform their patients of them. It’s more about balance therapy.
You may be wondering why so many people seem to benefit from SSRIs. After all, how come?
A few of the causes are as follows:
While all SSRI medications increase total serotonin levels and inhibit serotonin uptake, some of them also increase brain levels of allopregnanlone (a GABA agonist that is now approved for the treatment of depression), increase dopamine, inhibit histamine, and desensitize other serotonin receptors. This throws off our attempt to balance therapy.
One of the most widely used antidepressants, aeoni, for instance, inhibits the 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors while also increasing allopregnanolone.
More serotonin receptors are antagonistic to more recent SSRIs that are being developed. This is due to the fact that medicine is finally catching up and realizing that depression cannot be “cured” by serotonin. Furthermore, although most SSRI users report feeling better, a major side effect of the drug is anhedonia, or a lack of enjoyment in life.
Dopamine is essentially the happy hormone that makes you feel motivated, enjoy life more, want to accomplish goals, and so forth. To learn more about increasing dopamine, go here.
Reducing stress will also have a significant impact on lowering serotonin because stress typically elevates serotonin in conjunction with an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, trauma and chronic stress can cause persistently elevated serotonin and hypersensitivity long after the initial stress has subsided.
A brief history
Allow me to briefly explain the history of serotonin. The enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) converts the amino acid tryptophan into serotonin. These enzymes come in two varieties: type I is found in the stomach and type II is found in the brain.
Between 95 and 99% of the body’s total serotonin is found in the gut, whereas only 1% is found in the brain. However, under abnormal circumstances, the brain can synthesize up to 60% of its serotonin from tryptophan. Additionally, there is a significant increase in gut serotonin production when the gut is irritated. Later, more on that.
Serotonin binds to a wide variety of receptors, including 5-HT1 to 5-HT7. For instance, 5-HT1 has four sub-receptors: 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1C, and 5-HT1D.
Because the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A functions as an auto-receptor, the body produces less serotonin when serotonin binds to the receptor. Thus, 5-HT1A functions as a kind of internal sensor for total serotonin and aids in the regulation of serotonin levels. On the other hand, desensitization of the receptor can result in persistently high serotonin levels. Not favorable.
We’ll delve deeper into each of the 14 serotonin sub-receptors that have been identified so far, as they all have distinct functions. I’ll do my best to make things as easy as possible.
Moreover, serotonin can bind to its receptors in the extracellular space after it is released from neurons. Then, the serotonin transporter, 5-HTT or SERT, rounds up the serotonin and returns it to the neurons. Reduced serotonin transporter (SERT) indicates increased extracellular serotonin, which can attach to serotonin receptors and enhance the effects of serotonin. Put another way, a low SERT is undesirable.
The primary enzymes that degrade serotonin into its primary metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), are aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH) and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A). Steady MAO-A activity will result in elevated serotonin flux. To raise serotonin levels, the majority of SSRI medications inhibit the MAO-A enzyme.
Through glucuronidation, which necessitates healthy liver function, serotonin produced in the gut is primarily eliminated or detoxified I.
Now that you have a solid understanding of the production, function, and breakdown of serotonin, let’s talk about some of its adverse effects when levels are raised.
Effects of elevated serotonin on the body
- migraines, bronchoconstriction, asthma, and hives (in addition to histamine).
- syndrome of chronic fatigue
- Serotonin released from platelets or other cells causes edema and swelling in the joints.
- slowed metabolism, which may lead to weight gain.
- Sweating and flushing
- Easily alarmed, jittery (due to adrenaline), sensitive to light, sound, and visual disruptions, and prone to head twitching I
- In response to exercise, serotonin increases core temperature, which also contributes to decreased exercise endurance I. It is better to inhibit serotonin synthesis when exercising.
- raises the hormone aldosterone, which also causes water retention and blood pressure to rise.
- increases the release of prolactin, primarily via 5-HT2A I,
- increases CRH, glucocorticoids, and ACTH (primarily through 5-HT2C), as well as glucocorticoid receptors through the 5-HT7 receptor I, thereby activating the adrenal axis.
- increases the number of estrogen receptors (via 5-HT4) I
- prevents the synthesis of testosterone
- prevents the release of dopamine in the frontal cortex (via 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C)
Well enough of those worrisome, highly unwanted side effects. Going on to low serotonin maintenance.
I’m going to show you which supplements have been shown to lower serotonin after talking with you about the most crucial daily actions you can take to maintain low serotonin.
Chapter 2: The High Serotonin Personality
Unlike other neurotransmitters, serotonin is a complex neurotransmitter that affects every part of the body. Balanced therapy is essential. At the moment, it’s thought to help with anger, impatience, impulsivity, depression, anxiety, etc. The fact that people with these symptoms have lower levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA is one of the main causes of this. Because 5-HIAA is low, the research is predicated on the idea that brain serotonin is low. On the other hand, low 5-HIAA actually indicates that the brain is overproducing serotonin rather than that very little of it is being broken down.
Serotonin can be elevated in the brain in three main ways: first, by increasing its synthesis via tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2); second, by decreasing the function of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), which breaks down serotonin; and third, by decreasing the function of the serotonin transporter, or SERT.
Serotonin will be raised as a result of low MAO-A and SERT activity, as well as elevated TPH. I don’t specifically address whether serotonin is good or bad and why in this piece; instead, I describe a possible personality trait of someone who has high serotonin. Remember that serotonin is most likely elevated in combination with other chemicals such as glutamate, nitric oxide, prolactin, estrogen, cortisol, histamine, prostaglandins, and so on. It is rarely, if ever, elevated on its own. Because serotonin increases the release of certain hormones, such as cortisol and glutamate, many of the personality traits associated with it may be caused by elevated levels of these hormones. Lowering cortisol or glutamate on its own, however, won’t completely resolve the issue because serotonin is the primary cause of the problem and won’t be greatly alleviated if it isn’t controlled.
Here are a few of the most typical”char’cteristics of high serotonin personalities:
- weariness or sluggishness, fatigue quickly, and even chronic fatigue syndrome (caused by an increased 5-HT2A receptor)
- Preventing TPH fatigue avoids this tiredness. But other neurotransmitters, such as cortisol, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, the serotonin:dopamine ratio, the kynurenine pathway, etc., are also implicated in fatigue in addition to serotonin.
- Overexcitation (caused by elevated 5-HT2A receptor) includes ADD, ADHD, easily becoming distracted, anxiety, impulsivity, restlessness, overthinking, rumination, and other symptoms
- Mental rigidity and inflexibility. Some studies claim that using psychedelics like LSD, mushrooms, etc. to activate the 5-HT2A receptor reduces rigid thinking. However, this is actually because these drugs stimulate the release of glutamate, which in turn stimulates the release of dopamine via the NMDA receptor. Dopamine is involved in creativity and flexible thinking . Additionally, people typically experience a type of “bliss” for a week or two following psychedelic exposure, which is caused by 5-HT2A downregulation.
- depressed, melancholy, low spirits, diminished motivation to engage in other activities, such as going out and having fun, social anxiety and retreat, etc.
- Decreased cognitive function (not necessarily ignorance, but mental intuition) But in a very authoritative way, they may believe they are knowledgeable and possess all the answers.
- Narcissistic: grandiose delusions, power fantasies, inflated sense of self-importance, need for unceasing admiration, etc.
- Diminished sensory perception, including anhedonia, apathy, diminished auditory, taste, smell, sensation, and musical euphoria.
- excessively critical and biased in the negative
- Negative, cynical, and incapable of seeing the good in life
- Feel “icky” and frequently ask to be left alone.
- Assertiveness and non-assertiveness are completely uncorrelated (5-HT2C is inversely correlated with assertiveness) Rude and aggressive dominance may appear to be assertive. According to philosopher Eric Hoffer, “the weak man impersonating strength is rudeness.”
- OCD (5-HT2C activation decreases dopamine and noradrenaline and increases compulsivity)
- aversive, passive-aggressive, but also capable of extreme violence and aggression
- Give no thought to the repercussions of poor choices. Another possible cause of this could be low dopamine, which gives less weight to the severity of negative outcome. Life seems pointless or like a joke.
- Sensitivity to and increased expectation of stimuli related to threats, punishment, and unfavorable feedback
- Emotionally unstable people are emotional and argumentative about their beliefs and viewpoints, highly sensitive to emotional triggers (feeling like you have to walk on eggs around them), and easily triggered emotionally as a result of a traumatic experience with someone in the past.
- Bullying is typically the result of early-life trauma from being physically or mentally abused, which leads to the victim becoming the aggressor.
- Decreased psychomotor performance, memory, attention, planning ability, and verbal fluency. Nonetheless, people with high levels of serotonin and estrogen tend to talk a lot because these chemicals encourage the need to communicate.
- Terrified – terrified of failing, lacking self-assurance and self-promotion.
- Futile obedience (because they don’t want to upset anyone, are afraid, are “zombified,” don’t question things, etc.) and futile patience (continue waiting for something, even if it’s unlikely or unreasonable)
- Thoughts and even attempts at suicide/
- Bipolar mania – mood swings/ Helpful mechanisms include the histamine receptor H1, the 5-HT1A receptor’s agonism (which lowers serotonin), and the 5-HT2A receptor’s antagonism (which lowers excess glutamate).
- Intermittent explosive disorder violent, aggressive, easily agitated, and argumentative.
- Unlikable: Research indicates that men perceive women with high serotonin levels as less attractive and respond to them more violently. Those with high serotonin levels do, however, tend to draw in other like-minded individuals.
Of course, not everyone with high serotonin will have the same personality traits; you may know someone who exhibits some or many of the traits but not all of them. This is caused by variations in hormone levels between individuals as well as variations in receptor expressions.
However, in general, individuals with high serotonin have low dopamine and are more likely to be unstable, negative, prone to making poor decisions and cognitive errors, pessimistic (though they can also be overly (fake) optimistic and have a lot of fake confidence), lean on other people’s energy, possess all the answers and be overly logical rather than creative, depressed, irritable and truly annoying, passive-aggressive/up-in-your-face aggressive, enjoy picking on others to make themselves feel better, think highly of themselves (but deep down are highly insecure and lash out if any insecurity is exposed), can’t take something to be incorrect, etc.
To put it even more succinctly, serotonin is primarily associated with two types of personalities: one is assertive, dominant, narcissistic, authoritative, and controlling, and the other is more weak, depressed, anxious, and socially isolated (feel sorry for me). One can also be a combination of the two (“two-faced”, split personality etc.).
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